If you have not seen the movie Nightmare Before Christmas by Tim Burton, you really should. It is excellent for middle school age children and older. As far as class goes, there is a particular song in it that is useful for instruction: "Jack's Lament."
A quick bit of background information for those who have never seen the movie. Jack Skellington (pictured to the left) is the Pumpkin King of Halloween Town (every holiday has their own town). He has just had another successful Halloween. He has, once again, won all the praise of the inhabitants of Halloween Town. And he is bored out of his mind. This is the song he sings to express how unhappy he is, even though everything is going great.
Why show this song clip in your class? To teach allusion. There are several examples and depending on the level of student that you have, they should be able to pick out most.
Here they are in order as they appear in the song:
- Sally, the rag golem is an allusion to Frankenstein's monster. Students might be able to figure that out from the stitch marks.
- He is walking through a pet cemetery (Stephen King's Pet Cemetery).
- Zero the ghost dog - easy Rudolf allusion
- There is a grave stone figure that looks like Mushu from Mulan. If students make that connection, that's great. However, The Nightmare Before Christmas came out in 1993 and Mulan came out in 1998, so no true allusion there (though perhaps it inspired the look of the dragon?).
- The horse head tombstone is actually an allusion/pun. It looks like the chess piece knight. Use the homophone reference for night.
- You have two versions of the Scream painting by Edvard Muench. One tombstone looks similar to the painting and the other looks similar to the Halloween mask designed after the painting. To really drive it home, he even says that he, "grows so weary of the sound of screams," at the same time that he drapes his arm around one of the tombstones. Students might recognize the tombstone from the movie Scream, which has a mask based on the same painting.
- He calls himself Jack, the Pumpkin King. Maybe an allusion or at least a play on the idea of a Jack o' lantern?
- As Jack stands in front of the moon, it is a reference back to Tim Burton's Batman, when the batwing flies in front of the moon for a special visual effect.
- And of course, the Hamlet allusion as he takes off his skull and holds it to recite "Shakespearean quotations."
O.K., did I miss any? I feel like I did. If you notice any more, please leave a comment so that I can add it to the list. I'll give you full credit!
If you have the movie, you'll find this song starting at about 6:10 and ending at 9:45. If you don't, here is a You Tube version:
You can find the lyrics here if you would like to do a lesson on assonance. Every second and fourth line of each stanza uses assonance to fake the rhyme.